How Will Staking Work on Radix Babylon – Liquid Staking and Tax Implications Explained

A recent article on the RadixDLT website explains the upcoming staking features on the Radix network, which will be available in the Babylon version. Staking is a way to secure the network and also earn rewards. The new staking system makes it easier for investors to participate.

To stake Radix (XRD), investors will visit a web page specifically designed for staking. They can also use third-party staking sites. Staking is as simple as sending XRD to a validator, like In return, investors receive tokens called Liquid Stake Units (LSU) that represent their stake. These tokens can be freely transferred or used as desired.

If investors want to retrieve their staked XRD, they can unstake by sending their LSU back to the validator. The validator calculates the amount of XRD to be returned and moves it to a separate pool. A special NFT token called a claim token is given to the investor, specifying when and how much XRD they can claim. Once the waiting period is over, investors can exchange the claim token for their XRD.

The value of the stake and the rewards earned by stakers depend on the overall staked amount and the network’s performance. The Radix Wallet will provide information on the value of stakes and when rewards can be claimed.

Overall, the new staking system makes it simpler and more accessible for investors to stake their Radix tokens and participate in securing the network while earning potential rewards.

Tax Implications

Since the number of LSU tokens does not change during the staking period, and you don’t have immediate access to the staked XRD, one could argue that the reward emmissions in each epoch may not be considered taxable income. Only unstaking would be taxable, since only then is the gain or loss realized. However, both the IRS (US) and the HMRC (UK) don’t provide clear guidance on how liquid staking will be taxed.

For information see this blog post.

We are working on a tool that will provide stakers on RadixRadar exports of the staking rewards per epoch, in case these will be needed for tax purposes.

This article is for discussion purposes only and does not constitute tax or legal advice.

Why you should diversify your Stake

When it comes to staking your cryptocurrency, diversification is key. Instead of putting all your stake into a single validator node, consider spreading it across multiple validator nodes to enhance network security. Distributing your stake among several validators helps to safeguard against potential downtime, attacks, or other technical issues that may affect individual nodes. By supporting multiple validators, you contribute to a more resilient and decentralized network, increasing its overall security and stability.

By diversifying your stake, you reduce the risk of relying on a single validator, as any issues or vulnerabilities specific to that validator could potentially impact your investment. If a validator performs badly, it can be affected by “slashing”: The validator will lose some staked XRD (the tokens are burned as penalty). This means when unstaking, you could get back less XRD than you put into the validator. This is another good reason to spread your stake over multiple validators – don’t put all of your eggs into one basket! is a long-running Radix validator node that has been around since the betanet launched in April 2021. So please consider staking with us! Our validator address is rv1qw6m5nrwnjx2estgkv8zsvp77es6yea0p99zkregud6dqad8q5wg7yvr4na. See our article Learn how to stake for more information.

Incident: 15.02.2022 (downtime)

On 15th February 2022 at 9pm (UTC) our validator went down and effectively suspended validation for 11 hours until 8am of the following day.

We were notified to the validator going down straight away.
Shortly afterwards we de-registered the validator so that no further proposals were missed which would have further decreased the recent uptime percentage (which is at 99.3% right now) until the issue could be resolved. The validator was re-registered the next morning with a lower fee of 0.1% (instead of 1.99%). The fee will return to normal in about 2 weeks.

Post Mortem

Here we go through the details of what went wrong and how we aim to prevent this kind of situation in the future.

All times given are in UTC (London time).

15.02.2022, 9pm

The currently active validator node was shutdown and put into maintenance mode by our hosting provider. The maintenance started at 9pm and went on until 7am the next morning.

The maintenance of 3 of our servers (on 3 separate days) was actually announced ahead of time so all of this was entirely preventable. This was a human (my) error. I mixed up the server names and had thought this was only going to occur the following day. That’s my bad and I apologise to our stakers for the unnecessary downtime.

Now even with this human error this should have been not a big deal.
Just switch over to the failover and the downtime should be only a couple of minutes long.
After all I was alerted and able to react immediately.

However, due to unexpected complications with the failover node it wasn’t ready to jump in immediately.
While it did have a snapshot of the ledger and associated DB files they seemed to be corrupt and so the failover started synchronizing from the start again.

A full sync from zero takes at least 12 hours. That is a big problem.

So as one does I went to moan about this in the #node-runners channel on the RadixDLT discord server.
The Radix community being as awesome as it is people heard me right away.

Faraz from immediately offered his help. Rigel (Marco) from StakingCoins also answered right away and offered me a link to a backup of the database from his validator to speed up re-synchronisation. The backup was a bit older but would still save a lot of time.

Faraz then went on to point out that Stuart from RadixPool still shared a relatively recent backup with the community on the RadixPool website. As Faraz said in discord, we definitely all owe Stuart more than a few beers for his continuing service to the Radix community.

With Stuart’s backup I was able to re-synchronize the failover node by around 11pm.

Thanks to Faraz and Rigel for being so kind and helpful! And thanks to Stuart for providing these snapshots.

15.02.2022, 11pm

At this point I had re-activated the validator but still left it unregistered. The problem was again an unexpected one for me1. The original validator server could not actually be controlled by me in any way. The hosting provider doesn’t allow deactivating or removing the server, removing its internet access, closing ports or anything of the sort. So after maintenance was done it would then restart automatically and try to keep on validating.

This is a problem because there must never be 2 nodes active with the same key which both try to validate. This will cause missed proposals as they fight over the spot among the validators.

Now usually, in my experience with other hosting providers, this wouldn’t have been a problem. I would just deactivate the inactive node so that it does not automatically start again.
Unfortunately, and I didn’t expect this, I had no such control over the server with our current provider.
I should of course have realised this before this situation came up. My mistake.

This means I could not prevent it from coming back up online automatically eventually and ruin things.

This is why, with a heavy heart, I made the decision to keep the validator de-registered until the next morning when the maintenance window was going to end.

16.0.2022, 7am

With the maintenance window finally over the original validator came back online as expected.
Now at this point it was of course not in sync again as it hadn’t been online for 11 or so hours.

If had known for sure that the old validator would only came back online at a specific time, I wouldn’t have had to de-register the validator. I would’ve had all the time in the world to turn of the old server while it was catching up as soon as it came back up online.

Unfortunately it could’ve come back up online at any time within an 8 hour time window in the middle of the night. We observed this during the maintenance of another server.

Now I had control over the server again and deactivated the Radix node on it.

Then I promoted the still synchronized failover to validator and re-registered the validator so that it would again participate in the network.

As mentioned above when re-registering the validator I did this with a much lower fee of 0.1% as opposed to our normal fee 1.99%. I had originally intended to lower the fee to make up for the missed rewards. I then changed my mind after some discussion in our discord.

Full disclosure: It’s only as low as it is now because during re-registration I didn’t consider that the fee parameter in the transaction was actually expected not in percent (1.99) but in per 10,000 (199). On the plus side now our stakers do get more rewards as I originally intended for a while.

Still, this change will be reverted back to 1.99% in about 2 weeks.


To summarize: The issue was caused by human error (1), that is me, to begin with. The failover then was only available with a delay (2). And even with the failover ready we were unable to re-register the validator due to double validation (3) concerns.

I can only pledge to not let my mistakes happen again. I’ve learned from them and will take extra care from now on.

As for technical issues, these shall be mitigated in the future.

1 Which is of course not the provider’s fault. The issue was just me being to used to cloud hosting providers such as AWS or Hetzner where you can easily do this sort of thing. But for our node we chose to use closer-to-the-metal root servers which are of course not nearly as flexible.

The Future

The most critical problem here was the double validation issue (3). Without this the validator would have been back up and running within 2 hours after it went down despite issue number 2 (the corrupted database on the failover server). Still not ideal but a whole lot better than 11 hours.

Preventing double validation

To prevent this from happening in the future we will adjust our docker setup.
Currently before starting the docker services on a server the configuration is adjusted on the server once (validator vs full node configuration). From then onwards the server will always start in that configured role, i.e. either as a validator or only as a full node.

If a server becomes completely unavailable so that not even in the configuration can be adjusted on its disk (as it happened in this case) we cannot safely switch over the other to the validator role.

This step should have happened just before the maintenance window. It’s a problem that this requires a manual step before the server goes down because with this provider we can’t make sure that it stays down.

To mitigate this we will make the configuration source for the switch between validator and full node external. That is there will be a configuration file, say on a public S3 bucket, which will simply contain the IP of the server mapped to a role.

We will customize the docker container so that it checks this external source to decide whether it will start as a validator or full node. This means that even if the original validator server comes back online it will check this file and once it sees that it doesn’t have the validator role anymore, it will simply start as a full node only, preventing the double validation issue.

Should the external configuration source be unavailable for some reason we could still fallback to the manual configuration on the server. But by default the node container wouldn’t start at all.

External database snapshots

Issue number 2 was the corrupt database on the failover node. This, of course, shouldn’t happen to begin with and we will fix that issue too. We believe this happened due to a restart of the server during the local snapshot process. Overriding the last snapshot then corrupted it. We will adapt this such that we will keep multiple snapshots so that we can fallback onto a previous one in that case.

Moreover we will take a leaf out of Stuart’s book and store additional external snapshots of the database which we can then download as a last resort.

Closing thoughts

This long downtime of 11 hours was caused by multiple separate issues that all came together but in the end were triggered due to my mistakes. We recognize that our setup was not ideal and we could’ve prevented an issue to this extent even in the face of human error on my side.

We have learned from this and will improve our infrastructure accordingly so that we can offer a more reliable service in the future.

A big thank you to all our stakers who stay with us despite these temporary issues, and especially to those who expressed their support in our Telegram channel.

Mainnet Go-Live

Congratulations to everyone in the Radix team for the launch of the mainnet!

We are still soaking up all the new information available in the docs. Our nodes are already synced and online. We are just waiting to be able to register as a validator which is not yet possible.

Until then make sure to go to and create your mainnet wallet address!

Once we’re registered we’ll post an update. Our validator’s address will be:


Update (11pm): Our validator is now live!

Instructions for staking Radix (XRD)

Post was updated on November 14 2021.

Each of you have a different level of knowledge about staking.
So we have written a small guide on how to stake in the future to receive rewards.

For the German speakers among us we additionally have uploaded a video that shows of all of this in detail. If you prefer reading or can’t speak German, keep reading below.


What does staking actually mean?

In short means Staking To stake cryptocurrencies to get rewards.
Here you will find a detailed explanation.

How can you earn more Radix by using your Radix coins?

Step 1: Buy Radix

So far you can only buy eXRD (the Radix ERC20 token on the Ethereum blockhain). You can get eXRD via decentralized trading platforms (DEX) like uniswap. In addition, some central platforms (CEX) such as Bitfinex , Gate or KuCoin let you trade and buy Radix as well. You can find further options here.

Step 2: Convert eXRD to XRD

In order to be able to stake it, the eXRD must first be converted into the native XRD (Radix) tokens. In the future, this will be possible directly on Bitfinex, among other platforms. Until then, you can use Radix’s own instabridge platform to exchange eXRD for XRD.

To be able to exchange your eXRD on instabridge, you have to register with and complete the KYC (know your customer, i.e. identity check) process there. Then you have to register both the address of your Ethereum wallet, which contains the eXRD, and your Radix wallet address. For the former, you can either use your Ethereum wallet via Metamask, or you can use WalletConnect.

When converting you transfer your eXRD to the instabridge account. After a delay, the same amount will be transferred in XRD, the native Radix token, to your registered Radix address. Usually this should happen in a few minutes. You can see the status of the conversion on In some cases the transfer can take longer. But don’t worry, you’ll get your XRD eventually!

Radix wallet

If you don’t have a Radix Wallet yet, you can go here to download the application for Windows, OSX and Linux.
There you can then create a new address or import an existing one using the seed phrase. You can find detailed instructions for setting up the wallet on the Radix website .

Step 3: Stake Radix (XRD)

Open the wallet and click on “Stake & Unstake” in the menu on the left.

The staking view then looks like this.

There is currently no view in which you can directly select a validator (also called staking pool).
You have to enter or copy the address directly where you want to stake.

In the Radix Explorer you can view the list of registered validators and then copy the addresses of the validators you want to stake with. Our address, for example, is the following.


More on the topic of how to pick a validator (or staking pool, more information also here ) at the bottom of the page.

Now you enter the address of the validator (or validators) of your choice and set the desired amount of XRD (Radix) before you stake them. On the right side you can see your current stakes.

Important: Make sure not to stake all of your XRD as you will still need some XRD (between 0.5 and 1) to pay for the unstaking transaction later should you want to unstake.


Depending on the size of the stake, you will receive rewards for each epoch. How exactly these are calculated can be found on the official Radix website here. Here is a quick summary:

Every year around 300 million XRD of network emissions are generated by the Radix network.
This is an incentive for XRD token holders to stake their tokens for the proof of stake mechanism in order to secure the network.

This means that these 300 million XRD are paid out proportionally to all those who stake XRD, depending on how large their share of the total stake in the network is.

Let’s assume all owners together staked (as described above) 1,000,000,000 (1 billion) XRD.
Let’s also assume that you staked 1000 XRD yourself. Then that’s 0.0001% of the total stake in the network. Let us also assume for the sake of illustration that the situation does not change for a year, i.e. no one adds or removes new stakes.

Then after one year you will have received 0.0001% of the emissions (the 300 million).
0.0001% of 300 million are 300 XRD . That corresponds to an APY 1 of 30% .

The real amount will be a little smaller, however, since the delegators charge a fee for the operation of their servers. You can see the respective fee for a validator in the e xplorer before you choose one. You have to weigh up yourself what you think is a fair value.

Let’s say your chosen validator takes a 2% fee. Then that’s 2% of your 300 XRD. So 6 XRD.
That means you only get 294 XRD, so 29.4% APY.

Exactly how high these numbers are varies with the amount of stake in the network and with how large your share of it is. In the future the current exact value will be displayed here on our home page.

The rewards are generated proportionally for each epoch. That means if you didn’t join the staking straight away, that’s by and large not a problem. An epoch consists of around 10,000 “consensus rounds”, which corresponds to around 30 to 90 minutes, depending on the activity in the network.


When staking you cannot lose any XRD. They are only reserved for staking and can be released again at any time (see below).

The only thing you can lose is potential rewards.
If selected validators do not work reliably, e.g. because their servers fail, then a penalty is applied to their generated rewards. That would then reduce your profit beyond the fees mentioned above. It is therefore important to choose validators who you trust will be permanently available.

We ourselves staked the majority of our XRD with ourselves instead of with other validators.
In other words, if we perform poorly, we will also be punished directly because we receive fewer emissions.

On the one hand, this should show that we are convinced of ourselves and, on the other hand, it is a good additional motivation to keep our servers as reliable as possible.

1 annual percentage yield, ie annual interest rate


One more word about unstaking.
If you want your stake back, you have to request a reduction in your stake via the wallet.

Important : It can take 1 to 3 weeks (500 epochs) until the removed part of your stake is actually available again.

Selection of validators and further information

You can find more information about staking, unstaking, and what validators actually are on the Radix website.

We want to briefly explain to you how you can best select the validators for which you want to use your XRD (Radix). In short, you should pay attention to the following points.

  • 5×5 rule: Split your stake over at least 5 validators, each with a maximum of 5% of the global stake.
    • You can see the size of the percentage in the explorer.
  • Choose validators with a good geographical distribution. Some in Europe, America, Asia etc.
  • Choose validators who make a professional and reliable impression.
  • Don’t just vote for the top representatives. It is important to distribute the stakes well. If everyone just sticks to the biggest validators, it endangers the security of the network and can also slow it down.

We hope this short guide has helped you a little.

RadixRadar started as a validator!

Dear Community,

We are happy to announce that the betanet has now started and that we can take part as a validator. Soon you can stake your radix with us!

The information on staking has not yet been released. As soon as the information arrives, we will tell you how it works!

Here’s what we know:

Betanet Radix Desktop Wallet
You can download the wallet for your desktop here and you can find a guide here.

Betanet Radix Explorer
In the Explorer you can get information about individual addresses and transactions. More information is available in the User Guide .

Betanet Radix Node
The experts among you who want to open your own node (server) find more info here.

More about the launch of the betanet on the official site

Radix Betanet. We’re in.

Good news! We are one of 81 Radix Nodes from more than 300 applicants who are allowed to participate as full validators in the Radix Betanet. The 2-month beta phase starts on April 28th. We’ll be there from the start. We’re ready to go as soon as the documentation is available!

More on this in the official radix Blog entry .

Proposal #302 Found:

Hello Radix Community,

You are sure to be surprised to see a German post. There is of course a reason! We at want to strengthen the Radix network, especially in German-speaking countries (Germany, Austria and Switzerland) and represent a point of contact for the broader population.
We are also convinced of the Radix DiFi system and would therefore like to act as a validator!

You can find our proposal (# 302) here .

Our technology

In our proposal, we originally considered hosting our servers at Hetzner.
However, we have now changed our mind and will host our servers in Düsseldorf at
Even if they are only based in one city, they operate 5 data centers there and offer the best possible security and redundancy. The plan is currently to run 2 root servers that will both host Radix nodes.
Should we be chosen as the validator, 1 of them will act as the validator. In the event of a failure of one of the two servers – in theory – the other can then be made the validator without much delay.

We will only know more once the betanet is available.

Our team

Our team from currently consists of three people, Markus, Mathias and Robert.

Markus: I have a lot of experience with the operation of server infrastructures on various platforms (e.g. AWS). I will keep the servers running and be available for technical questions. I’m very interested in Radix as a dApp platform and I can’t wait to jump into Scrypto as soon as possible!

Mathias: I am an experienced software engineer and I will support Markus in the operation of the servers and take care of our website.

Robert: Through years of experience as a lecturer at universities, I will promote the distribution in all possible social networks and present instruction videos and information in German. So I listen to you, support you and spread the most important information … to put it another way …. I’ll be the “mom” for everything. 🙂


The main point of contact should be our website. We also have our own subreddit as well as a Twitter account to keep the community up to date.

Our goal

  • Permanent operation of our Radix-Nodes and Community website
  • Support with technical questions about radix, staking and crypto in general
  • Develop the community and bring in your ideas
  • Spread the word about Radix in German-speaking countries